HomedietGlycemic Index and Glycemic Load- Limitations For Weight Loss

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load- Limitations For Weight Loss


Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load- Understanding The Limitations For Weight Loss


First introduced to the world at large back in the early 1980’s, the glycemic index was initially developed as a tool to help diabetics make better food choices by creating a numerical system to measure the impact of foods on blood sugar levels. Since then, the glycemic index and later, glycemic load became a standard for many as a way of determining how healthy a particular food may or may not be. Numerous popular books on the market and dietary guidelines recommend using glycemic index and glycemic load as simple way to lose weight and stay healthy as well as a preventive measure against cancer, obesity and the slew of metabolic diseases that accompany it.[4] In a way, the glycemic index became a simple solution to the modern problem of maintaining a healthy body weight and figuring out what we should and should not eat. However as enticing as such a solution might sound, the science behind it is far more complex and many authorities in the field of nutrition question its usefulness outright.[3,5,6,7] One of the recurrent problems facing most people seeking to lose weight and eat healthier in our society is that of oversimplification. Namely, the tendency of many ‘nutritional solutions’ to be whittled down into easy to digest news bytes that are also easy to sell. It’s an approach that works wonders for marketing purposes but has little or no real educational value to the general public as you don’t sell an idea by delving into its inherent limitations. The glycemic index is a case in point. While it can be instructional to some degree, the assignment of a low glycemic index value to a food is by no means an iron-clad indication of whether it’s good for you or not. The innumerable combinations of different foods in our meals, individual variations in food absorption rates and discrepancies in the measurements of foods grown in different soils all make it questionable as a simple one stop solution. More importantly, processed foods high in sugar and fat may have a low glycemic index value but it would be absurd to consider them healthy choices by any stretch of the imagination due to their high calorie value and low nutritional yields.[1,3] In this article we will take a hard look at the glycemic index and show what it can and cannot tell us about foods.


Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load- Understanding The Role Of Carbohydrates


watermelon has a high glycemic index but low glycemic load
Watermelon has a high glycemic index but a low glycemic load.


In order to understand the limitations of glycemic index values we must first understand the nature of carbohydrates and what happens in our bodies when we eat them. There are two forms of carbohydrates as defined by their biochemical structure- simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are sugars that can be further subdivided into single sugars (monosaccharides) and compound sugars (disaccharides)- which are combinations of two single sugars. Examples of single sugars are glucose- which is the primary fuel for our brain and muscles, fructose, the naturally occurring and extremely sweet sugar in fruit and vegetables and galactose. Examples of compound sugars are sucrose or table sugar- which is a combination of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule, lactose or milk sugar- which is a combination of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule and maltose (malt sugar) which is a combination of two glucose molecules. On the other side of the spectrum are complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) which can be thought of as large chains of glucose molecules strung together and are thus much more complex in structure than simple sugars. Some common examples of complex carbohydrates are grains, beans, oats, rice and potatoes and bread.



Now our digestive system can’t absorb anything larger than a single units of glucose, so when you eat carbohydrates of any kind, the enzymes in your small intestine break them down into smaller and more manageable chains. Only when they have been broken down into single molecules of glucose can they then be absorbed by the intestinal walls and enter your bloodstream. Once blood glucose levels begin to increase, your pancreas begins secreting the powerful hormone, insulin. Insulin works to transport sugar out of your bloodstream and into the cells of your muscles and liver where it’s needed as a fuel source to keep your brain working and your muscles moving. Some of that glucose is also sent to your fat tissues and any excess that isn’t immediately needed is stored in a form called glycogen. Compared to fat, our other and much more abundant energy system, our body cannot store that much glycogen in our bodies and thus can be easily overwhelmed. If you eat too much carbohydrate foods that are quickly absorbed into the bloodstream, like refined carbohydrates, your pancreas will try to compensate by secreting a large amount of insulin. That insulin spike causes two major problems. The first is that as blood sugar levels drop rapidly in response to the high insulin levels, you will feel your energy levels plummet which will make you feel extremely hungry and make you more likely to eat the wrong foods and overeat. The second problem is that since our muscle and liver cells have a limited amount of storage space for glycogen, any excess glucose is converted into fat and stored as such. Both factors over time  increase the likelihood of weight gain risk of metabolic related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, thus it makes sense to create a system that gives us a heads up on how our blood sugar is affected by the foods we eat.




Glycemic Index – A Definition


In response to this problem, Dr. Jenkins and his colleagues devised the glycemic index- which is a numerical ranking system based on how fast our body absorbs glucose. Formally speaking, the glycemic index is a measure of blood glucose response to food consumed relative to the consumption of 50 grams of pure glucose. Testing is done under standardized conditions and is ranked on a scale of 1 to 100 with glucose at the top of the scale with a glycemic index of 100.[2] The glycemic index classification system categorizes foods with a glycemic index value of 70 or more as having a high glycemic index value, 55-69 as being medium, and any score under 55 as being low.[2] That being said, carbohydrates that are high in fiber slow down the rate of absorption of glucose in the small intestine, and tend to have lower glycemic values. Fruits, vegetables and grains in their whole forms are good examples of carbohydrates that are high in fiber and whose impact on our blood sugar make them excellent food choices when consumed in moderation. Such foods are either unprocessed or minimally processed as one of the side effects of food refinement is a significant removal of naturally occurring fiber. Thus processed carbohydrates tend to have higher glycemic index values than their naturally occurring counterparts and if you eat a large amount of processed carbs you risk a severe insulin spike that can lead to weight gain and increased risk of health problems over time.



Glycemic Index And Glycemic Load

glycemic index xhart

As we mentioned before refined carbohydrate foods tend to have a higher glycemic index value than naturally occurring foods, but it isn’t always that straightforward since the glycemic index does not take into consideration the amount of carbohydrate consumed.[8] Watermelon, for example, has a glycemic index rating of 72- which is high due to the glucose and fructose it contains, yet it is still a healthy and recommended low calorie carbohydrate food since it only contains 5 grams of carbohydrate per 100 grams. The fact that watermelon by weight is only 6% carbohydrate and 92% water means that you would have to eat a ridiculously large amount of it for it to significantly elevate your blood sugar levels[3] and a similar problem pops up for other naturally sweet fruits and vegetables. Carrots also have a high glycemic index value but like watermelon would not significantly affect blood sugar levels unless you ate 10 of them or more at one time. Which is why the practice of juicing often creates more problems than it solves by concentrating perfectly healthy fruits and vegetables in quantities that the human body would not encounter under natural circumstances and thus drinking juices initiate the same unhealthy increases in blood sugar that you would get from drinking a soda or some other sugary drink. To show that quantity of carbohydrate consumed is also a determining factor in blood sugar levels the glycemic load was developed. Glycemic load takes into account how much carbohydrates a serving of food contains by multiplying the glycemic index by the amount of available carbohydrate. Because it includes serving relevant information, in some ways it is a more accurate measure, but has it’s limitations nonetheless.



Problems With Using Glycemic Index & Glycemic Load For Weight Loss

glycemic index and glycemic load

Unfortunately, human nutrition is an incredibly complex subject, a complexity that rears its head often when it comes to the accuracy of glycemic index and load values under real world circumstances. There are six major factors that change glycemic values that must be taken into consideration before using it as a measure of how healthy a food is for you or as a weight loss tool. Those factors are food fat content, changes in glycemic values due to mixing of foods in meals, individual differences in glycemic response to the same foods, food state and temperature, complications with glycemic index values themselves and the fact that blood sugar response does not have any relationship to food satiety.


Limitation 1. Fat Content Affects Glycemic Index Values


pancakes have a lower glycemic index with syrup
The high glycemic index of a food like pancakes with syrup drops significantly by adding butter- but that doesn’t make it any healthier.


We have established that fiber plays a role in slowing down glucose absorption into the bloodstream and give a food a lower glycemic values but dietary fats can also have a similar effect. Fatty acids significantly depress glycemic responses which can result in a low glycemic index value for foods that are not simply not good for you on the whole.[3] High fat ice cream for example, which is both high in sugar and calories, can hardly be categorized as healthy yet its fat content gives it an index value of only 37. [8] A number that places it lower than or equal to most healthy fruits and vegetables including apples, bananas and pumpkins. Even when taking serving size into consideration, the glycemic load of a bowl of ice cream is still lower than that of a serving of oatmeal or oat bran cereal which right there is cause for alarm if you are using these indices as an exclusive measure of what you should and should not eat.


Limitation 2. Combining Different Foods Affects Glycemic Index Values

rice glycemic index changes when meat is added
The glycemic index of rice changes significantly by adding protein


Further complicating matters is the fact that combining foods- as is most often the case in the world outside of the laboratories, can also wreak havoc on glycemic index value predictions. Studies found that drinking milk with rice, for example, results in a significantly lower glycemic index value than when rice is eaten alone- which is significant because few people in the developed world ever eat carbohydrate foods like rice or potatoes alone.[19] Eating chicken or fish with rice or also lowers the value to a degree that cannot be predicted by simply taking the average of the different foods consumed as the presence of protein also slows glucose absorption in the small intestine.[9] Given that accurate predictions for different combinations of foods is impossible- it brings into question glycemic index and load values as most people eat carbohydrates along with foods that are high in protein and or fats.


3. Individual Glycemic Responses To Foods Are Different

chewing affects glycemic index
Even how much you chew affects glycemic index values



Making matters even more complex is the fact that different people can eat the same carbohydrate in the same amounts and have significantly different blood glucose responses. One study found that even the training state of an athlete changed the glycemic index response to the same food. [7] Other idiosyncrasies such as how long a food is chewed before swallowing as well as individual variations in digestion and absorption rates also affect glycemic values. [10,11] Further discrediting the validity of published glycemic index values is the fact that only six to ten subjects are used during testing. A number that any statistician would recognize as being too small a sample size given individual variations to represent the average blood sugar responses of everyone on the planet to a given food.[3]


4. Glycemic Index Values Are Affected By External Factors


You might think that the glycemic value of a single food would be constant, but it isn’t. Cooking and increased temperatures change the rate of blood sugar response of any given carbohydrate, as does lowering of temperature and moisture levels.[12] Raw carrots for example have a low glycemic index value of 16 but can jump as high as 49 or 92 when boiled- which under no circumstances disqualifies them as healthy food choices.


5. Glycemic Index Values For The Same Food Can Vary Widely


Staying with carrots as an example, international tables list boiled carrots as having a mean glycemic index of 92, 49 and 32 [8] which is confusing to say the least as the values range from within recommended levels to extremely high. Which brings into question again the reliability of glycemic index as an exclusive dietary tool since boiled carrots are indeed perfectly healthy choices. Multiple values are unavoidable something as seemingly trivial as where a food was grown and differences in ingredient concentrations can make for significant differences in blood sugar responses.


6. Glycemic Index Has No Correlation With Food Satiety Or Weight Loss


potatoes are a high glycemic index food
Potatoes have a high satiety level but also a high glycemic index value


One of the most popular health claims for the use of glycemic index values is as a weight loss tool. The theory is that low glycemic index foods promote higher degrees of food satiety which reduces the likelihood of overeating and continued compliance with an energy restricted diet.[13] A interesting theory but one that fails to hold water when tested with the variety of foods on the market today. A comprehensive study that tested the satiety and insulin response of several foods found no relationship whatsoever between glycemic index values and perceptions of food satiety when comparing food portions of equal caloric value. The results were quite contradictory in fact as boiled potatoes were found to have the highest satiety rating, but also a very high glycemic index value. On the other hand porridge and natural muesli, which both have similarly low glycemic index values had marked differences in their satiety scores. The bottom line was that blood sugar response isn’t always directly related to satiety. Other studies failed to find differences in body mass index (BMI) among those using lower glycemic index foods as a means of weight maintenance.[14,15,16] Perhaps because glycemic index is not related to the energy density of foods which is a major factor in weight loss and weight gain.[3] For example, baked goods such as cookies and cakes have glycemic index values that are close to that of fresh oranges but have ten times more calories- a factor that also discredits the use of glycemic index values as a weight loss tool.[3] While some studies have found positive reductions in body weight among those consuming  low glycemic index foods- all of those studies incorporated high fiber and naturally occurring or minimally processed foods as staples such as fruit, vegetables and whole grains. Substituting processed low glycemic index foods for more natural ones would not have the same result as a diet where the staples were high fat ice creams, cakes and pastries would not at all be one conducive to weight loss. In those studies where weight loss was achieved, low glycemic index values were more of a correlative factor than a causative one, further bringing its usefulness into question.



Recommendations For Selecting Carbohydrates
fruits and vegetables are good food choices regardless of glycemic index
Fruits and vegetables are great choices regardless of glycemic index values



At the end of the day the limitations of glycemic index and load values as a viable tool for health and weight management are numerous and under no circumstances can it be used excursively as a one stop solution. While it does provide some insight into the fact that highly processed foods like candy and sweets are not as good a choice as fruit and vegetables, one could easily argue that such a finding could be discerned without any knowledge of glycemic values. Studies show modest improvements in blood sugar among diabetics who adhere to the practice of choosing low glycemic value foods.[17,18] However those studies also involved low calorie and high fiber foods, and as such those findings may not apply to the slew of highly processed low glycemic index foods on the market that are relatively high in sugars and calorically dense.[3] There is also no straightforward relationship between glycemic load and glycemic index as a food with an unacceptably high glycemic index would have a low glycemic load if eaten in small enough quantities. Which gives a green light to continue eating foods that may be harmful even in small amounts. On the other hand, a low glycemic index food that is considered a healthy choice can have a high glycemic response depending on how much of it you eat. All told weight loss and a healthy diet cannot be attained by blindly using glycemic values as it may in some cases cause more problems than it solves due to the somewhat complex and confusing nature of its nutritional shortcomings. That being said it can be of some use when used in conjunction with other important nutritional indicators such as caloric content, portion size and ingredient listings. As far as carbohydrates are concerned, though, you are always better served by eating high fiber and low calorie naturally occurring or minimally processed carbohydrate foods in moderate amounts, regardless of  what the glycemic values might be.

5th Avenue Gym circa 2009- 5 years out from my last show.

As you can see, trophies and competitions were NEVER the driving force behind why I train the way I train and why I eat the way I eat.

It's always been my passion to see how far I could go as a natural athlete and perhaps even more so, to show what can be accomplished without using drugs.

And 5th Avenue Gym was the perfect place to do it.

I really miss that gym.

It was a place where legends came to train and while it wasn't pretty, it had everything we needed to do the work we needed to do.

And boy did we work!!!

5th Avenue for life as they say!!!

Hope you are still training hard and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

And thanks @pit_bulls_67 for snapping the shot!!!!

#naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #throwback #fifthavenuegym #5thavenuegym #drugfreebodybuilding #naturalbodybuildinglifestyle #gym #gymlife #gymmotivation #naturalbodybuildingmotivation #bodybuilding #bodybuildinggym

209 29

Why Are Pull Ups So Hard For Some But Not For Others?

Pull ups are an exercise people love to hate!

They love to hate it because in my experience, most untrained men or women can't do one pull up and those who train can often struggle to do 6 or 10.


Because pull ups are hard!

And yet people like myself can easily do as many as 20-25!

So what's the reason for this discrepancy?

Is there some secret that allows me and others to do pullups so easily?

There isn't, and in this video I go over exactly why I can do as many as I can and why it can be so much harder for others.

I also go over my #1 pull up variant that ANYONE can do, even if you can't do one pull up.

And yet it can build strength and muscle size in some cases even more so than regular pull ups!

So click the link in my bio to see the full video on YouTube or go to my channel by looking up naturallyintense!

Thanks in advance for watching and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#pullups #highintensitytraining #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #fitover40 #naturalbodybuildingvideos #backworkout #pullupworkout #naturalbodybuildingtips #backtraining #highintensitytrainingtips #hometraining #trainingtips #bodybuildingtips

79 13

Maximize Biceps Growth With High Intensity Arm Blaster Hammer Curls!

50lb Dumbbells For 20 reps!

The Arm Blaster is a fantastic piece of equipment for a home gym or any gym!

It doesn't take up much space and allows you to add variety to your biceps training.

It locks your elbows in place, thus increasing training intensity, and by doing a hammer curl, you can use more weight (thus increasing intensity even more) and target your brachialis muscles which help add density to your biceps!

This was my last set and I couldn't go any heavier as I am still nursing a wrist injury, but the 50lbers were more than enough to do the job!

Try them out next time you train arms and let me know how it goes!!!

Still training, hope you are too and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#hometraining #homeworkout #homeworkout #nuobell #highintensitytraining #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #fitover40 #naturalbodybuildingvideos #armworkout #bicepsworkout #naturalbodybuildingtips #biceps #armtraining #bicepsworkout #highintensitytrainingtips #drugfreebodybuilding#powertec #armblaster #hammercurls

103 12

Injury-Proof Your Training: The Power of Workout Variation!

One of the main reasons why I can still train heavy and intensely at 49 after 35 years of nonstop training without any training related overuse injuries is the fact that I vary EVERY workout!

Overuse injuries come from doing the same movements over and over and by always changing your routine, you radically lessen the likelihood of chronic injury.

Squats, deadlifts, barbell curls and bench presses are great exercises, but if you do them all the time, you do increase the odds of getting injured.

And as a natural athlete, it bears mentioning that it takes years to realize your full potential, and so it's crucial to have a training program that is sustainable, and one that will allow you to train injury free for as long as I have or longer!

Thanks so much for tuning in and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#naturalbodybuilding #naturalbodybuildingtips #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuildingvideos #injuryprevention #fitover40 #workout #gymlife #workouttips #trainingmotivation #naturalbodybuildingmotivation #drugfreebodybuilding #highintensitytraining #injuryfreetraining #longevity

85 19

High Intensity Training Leg Extensions To Failure!
And as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#naturalbodybuilding #naturalbodybuilder #highintensitytraining #highintensitytrainingtips #hometraining #homeworkout #fitover40 #naturalbodybuildingvideos #naturalbodybuildingtraining #naturalbodybuildingtips #naturalbodybuildingmotivation #legextensions #legday #legworkout #powertec #legdayworkout

117 16

This Is What 35 Years of Natural Bodybuilding Looks Like!

So as you know, As you may know I recently turned 49 and every year I do a photoshoot to show my progression.

In the hopes of showing that you can not only maintain a level of excellence as the years go by, but that you can do it without steroids, TRT, drugs or even pre-workouts and protein shakes!

(I’ve never had a pre-workout or energy drink and haven’t had a protein shake in decades!)

You don't need it as all it does make you forget tht excellence doesn’t require anything outside of yourself.

You already have all the tools you need!

Not a huge fan of taking photos of myself, (I much prefer being behind the camera) but I humbly try to be one example of just how much you can achieve with proper training and an uncompromisingly proper diet!

So here I am again at 49 and I am looking forward to seeing what you accomplish over the years as well!!! Thanks so much for tuning in and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#naturalbodybuilding #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuildingvideo #naturalbodybuildingmotivation #naturalbodybuildingtips #highintensitytraining #drugfreebodybuilding #nodrugs #fitover40 #fitoverforty

366 36

High Intensity Arm Training- 50lb Concentration Curls!

There are two basic types of exercises, compound movements like barbell curls and isolation movements like concentration curls.

If you want above average arm development, you have to go hard on all exercises.

Isolation movements included, especially if you are drug free as we don't have the privilege of maximum growth from anything less than putting in some seriously hard work!

You have to go to that dark place where you can barely get the weight to move and do whatever it takes to get it up!

And then somehow find it in you to do it again!!!

You can't intellectualize it, you just have to do it and believe!!!

This was my third and last set and so I went all out!

My wrist is still a bit off so not going ultra heavy (by my standards) but
this was a hard set!

I haven't done concentration curls in a while, so I am really sore right now as I type this out two days after the workout!

Bear in mind that I always try to change it up and no one exercise is done every time I train.

Never training to maintain, always working hard to gain!!!

Still training and I hope you are too!!!

Thanks for tuning in and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#hometraining #homeworkout #homeworkout #roguerack #nuobell #highintensitytraining #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #fitover40 #naturalbodybuildingvideos #armworkout #bicepsworkout #naturalbodybuildingtips #biceps #armtraining #bicepsworkout #highintensitytrainingtips #drugfreebodybuilding

156 16

Unlock Your Natural Potential By Varying Your Workouts!
For the past 32 years I have always done a different workout every time I trained.

I have never followed a set program of exercises and the only unifying aspect of my workouts is the blistering intensity!

I train three times a week with a protocol I call Naturally Intense High Intensity Training, and what distinguishes it from other forms of high intensity training is the constant variety.

Muscles grow in response to overload and UNACCUSTOMED stimulation.

Remember when you first started training how effective everything seemed to be, but over time that progress slowly ground to a halt.

You change your routine and see some progress, but the gains in size and strength inevitably fall off over time if you don't make a change.

Now what if you never left that "beginner gains" stage and were always training with different exercises and radically different ways of doing the exercises every single time?

You would be where I am, not having experienced a plateau over the past 32 years and be able to really start unlocking your natural potential!

How does it all work, and how would you measure progression? Watch the full video on YouTube by clicking on my bio link, or going to my YouTube channel (Naturally Intense) and see for yourself!

I really think it can help make a difference in your overall progress, and best of all, it helps you avoid injuries so you can keep training hard for years on end! Thanks in advance for watching and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#naturalbodybuilding #naturalbodybuildingtips #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuildingvideos #workout #workouttips #fitover40 #gymlife #workoutmotivation #trainingmotivation #naturalbodybuildingmotivation #drugfreebodybuilding #highintensitytraining #highintensitytrainingtips #HIT

142 21

Please note that all material is copyrighted and DMCA Protected and can be reprinted only with the expressed authorization of the author.

Click for a free copy!

Click To Get A Copy Of Kevin’s Free Ebook On The Role Of Exercise In Reducing Abdominal Fat!

Featured everywhere from the Wall Street Journal to CBS News, Kevin Richardson is an award winning personal trainer, natural bodybuilding champion, creator of Naturally Intense High Intensity Personal Training and one of the  best personal trainers in New York City.


Related Articles:

Will Bread Make You Gain Weight

12 ‘Healthy’ Foods You Need To Avoid

Oat Bran Cereal- The Healthy Food You Should Be Eating Everyday!


References for Limitations of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load: 


1. Freeman J. The glycemic index debate: does the type of carbohydrate really matter? Diabet Forecast 2005

2. Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Jenkins AL, Thorne MJ, Lee R, Kalmusky J et al. The glycaemic index of foods tested in diabetic patients: a new basis for carbohydrate exchange favouring the use of legumes. Diabetologia 1983

3. BJ Venn, TJ Green. Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships. Euro J of Clin Nutri 2007

4. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Franceschi S, Hamidi M, Marchie A et al. Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002

5. Coulston AM, Hollenbeck CB, Reaven GM. Utility of studies measuring glucose and insulin responses to various carbohydrate containing foods. Am J Clin Nutr 1984

6. Pi-Sunyer FX. Glycemic index and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002

7. Flint A, Moller BK, Raben A, Pedersen D, Tetens I, Holst JJ et al. The use of glycaemic index tables to predict glycaemic index of composite breakfast meals. Br J Nutr 2004

8. Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002

9. Collier G, O’Dea K. The effect of coingestion of fat on the glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to carbohydrate and protein. Am J Clin Nutr 1983

10. Read NW, Welch IM, Austen CJ, Barnish C, Bartlett CE, Baxter AJ et al. Swallowing food without chewing; a simple way to reduce postprandial glycaemia. Br J Nutr 1986

11. Suzuki H, Fukushima M, Okamoto S, Takahashi O, Shimbo T, Kurosem T et al. Effects of thorough mastication on postprandial plasma glucose concentrations in nonobese Japanese subjects. Metabolism 2005

12. Wolever TM. The glycemic index. World Rev Nutr Diet 1990

13. Brand-Miller JC, Holt SH, Pawlak DB, McMillan J. Glycemic index and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2002

14. Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 1997

15. Hodge AM, English DR, O’Dea K, Giles GG. Glycemic index and dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004

16.Schulze MB, Liu S, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004

17. Frost G, Leeds A, Trew G, Margara R, Dornhorst A. Insulin sensitivity in women at risk of coronary heart disease and the effect of a low glycemic diet. Metabolism 1998

18. Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM. The effect of high- and low-glycemic index energy restricted diets on plasma lipid and glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic subjects with varying glycemic control. J Am Coll Nutr 2002

19. Henry CJ, Lightowler HJ, Kendall FL, Storey M. The impact of the addition of toppings/fillings on the glycaemic response to commonly consumed carbohydrate foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006

Kevin Richardson
Kevin Richardsonhttps://www.naturallyintense.net
Featured everywhere from the Wall Street Journal to CBS News, celebrity Personal Trainer NYC and with over 2.6 million readers of his blog, Kevin Richardson is the creator of Naturally Intense High Intensity Training, one of the top lifetime drug free bodybuilders of his time, the first International Fitness & Nutrition Consultant for UNICEF, 2020 and 8 Time Winner of the Best of Manhattan Awards for Personal Training and a world recognized authority on high intensity training. Kevin has helped thousands, from celebrities to CEO's over the past 30 years achieve their fitness goals with his 10 minute high-intensity workouts done just three times a week in conjunction with his holistic nutrition approach. You can learn more about about his diet and training services at www.naturallyintense.net

Most Popular

Share via
Copy link
Powered by Social Snap