HomedietAre Protein Shakes Bad For You? And Do They Work?

Are Protein Shakes Bad For You? And Do They Work?


are protein shakes bad for you


Are Protein Shakes Bad For You? And Do they Work?



Although research hasn’t proven their role in sports performance and muscle strength, the ubiquitous protein shake has become a central presence in the lives of most fitness conscious people today and is the golden boy of the multi-billion dollar supplement industry. Once chalky and foul tasting mixtures of calcium caseinate used almost exclusively by bodybuilders and power-lifters in the 1970’s and 80’s, protein shakes have evolved into slickly advertised and milkshake flavored smoothies sold at trendy shops. Sales of protein shakes and its cousin the protein bar, increase each year as more mainstream members of the public use them as a quick and handy meal replacement. A 2005 study published by the American Academy of Pediatrics even found that protein powders and shakes were the supplements most commonly used by those aged 12 to 18, which isn’t surprising given the advertising that promises muscles from a can. In the fitness world, protein shakes are seen as an indispensable part of achieving a lean, muscular physique and they are sold at just about every gym in the country. Without a doubt, the number of fitness minded people who don’t use protein shakes are few, and I will be first to admit that I used protein shakes religiously for over ten years earlier in my career. This is no longer the case as I don’t use them anymore, nor do I advise any of my personal training clients to use them. Experience has taught me that protein shakes are not that effective for building quality muscle in a drug free athlete, and using them can be an easy way to get fat and adversely affect your health.

Protein can be thought of as the building blocks for our bodies. Muscle, bones, skin and other tissues are all made from protein and everyone needs in varying amounts to stay healthy. The appeal of protein shakes is that most people don’t always have access to wholesome meals and so a ready to drink shake is looked upon as a handy and healthy alternative- but is it really? The past hundred years have been a too often ignored history lesson of what goes wrong when we add unnatural food products to our diet. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes now affect as much as 25% of the U.S. population[1] and blame for the increase lies squarely on the new foods introduced into our diet in the latter half of the twentieth century. Nothing could be more further from a natural human diet than a protein shake or bar and given the fact that there are no safety testing criteria required by the FDA for supplements, we have nothing concrete to vouch for how their long term use will impact our health. The list of  fallen ‘healthy foods’ consumed by the fitness minded over the years is an impressive one. Trans fats laden margarine became a staple among the health conscious during the 70’s and 80’s while low fat food products are popular items today. All sold based on nothing more than advertising hype and endorsements while time and science proves them all to be questionable for regular human consumption.  It is important for us to realize that over the past 150,000 years of our existence as a species, the human body has evolved along with the very foods that sustained us in a harmonious and mutually beneficial way. Societies labeled as primitive that subsist on only naturally occurring foods do not have the prevalence of metabolic disease.[2]

protein shakes are bad for your health
It always surprises me that health conscious men and women who avoid processed foods see no harm in consuming perhaps the most processed and unnatural food in the form of liquid protein shakes.


Protein Shakes Are Unhealthy & Inherently Unnatural Food Products


Our bodies are a marvels of biological perfection, and so is the environment in which they evolved. For millennia, we have relied exclusively on natural food sources for our sustenance. Our ancestors ate meat, fish, grains, grasses, nuts, eggs and other foods, but their diets did not include protein shakes with cross filtered, pre-digested whey proteins or micellar casein. The argument that protein shakes are made with natural ingredients are a moot point, as many products made with natural ingredients are harmful to human beings. Potassium cyanide can be harvested from wild almonds, and stating that it has ‘all natural ingredients’ will do little to reduce its toxicity. The most popular protein shakes are made with whey or casein which are both milk derivatives, but although they exist in milk, they do not exist naturally in isolation without the presence of other nutrients- a factor we are learning to be critical in the way the body digests micro and macro nutrients. An excellent example would be vitamin supplements. You can take the most expensive vitamin tablet to ensure your intake of essential vitamins and minerals, but because the many other chemical compounds naturally present in meats, grains, fruit or vegetables are absent, our bodies simply cannot absorb the vitamins as efficiently. Since vitamins were first isolated in the early 20th century by biochemist, Casmir Funk, we have embarked on an unsuccessful quest to reduce foods to simple compounds of vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates and fats with the creation of engineered food products. The failure of the modern food industry to create and sustain an overwhelmingly healthy population should set off an alarm in the heads of anyone serious about taking care of their bodies. It took thousands of years for our bodies and our foods to evolve. There is a very strong relationship between us and the foods responsible for our survival as our bodies have learned over time to extract vital nutrients from these foods, while they in turn evolved to be more appealing to our senses and our taste buds. You don’t need a label with well muscled individuals making outrageous claims to make an apple on a tree appealing, but you need a pretty good public relations campaign to make the idea of liquid proteins palatable to the general public- and that is exactly what modern marketing has done. Liquid proteins can never share the kinship that we have with real foods and it is doubtful that it ever will.



Protein Shakes Can Make You Fat


protein shakes can make you fat
Protein shakes can play a role in increasing body fat stores.


The protein found in many of today’s shakes are predigested, which means they are chemically altered to allow for faster assimilation. In terms of supplying protein quickly to needy muscles, this sounds like  an excellent idea, especially after a hard workout, but it actually isn’t. Many studies confirm that ingestion of protein can increase your metabolic rate over 30% more than other food sources. This increase in metabolic rate from protein intake is called the thermic effect, and is a key factor in effective body fat reduction and is one of the reasons high protein diets are recommended for promoting fat loss. However, by drinking a protein shake in liquid form, it will always be assimilated faster than its natural, real food, solid counterparts. The rapid assimilation will thus significantly decrease the thermic effect. Factor in that these proteins are also partially pre-digested, it becomes obvious that this will further reduce any thermic effect. The rapid ingestion of a high calorie liquid protein can also lead to diarrhea, bloating and have a negative effect on eating behaviors. The skills required to lose weight long term by making consistent healthy real food choices go out the window when a protein shake is used to replace a meal. Let us not forget that a protein shake is still a source of liquid calories, and even the low calorie varieties can add up.

re protein shakes good for you or can they make you fat?
Successful natural bodybuilders almost always sop using protein shakes for at least 3- 6 months before a contest when they need to look their leanest. So why use them at all?


There is growing evidence that our bodies are unable to detect the calories in these new ‘liquid foods’ as when we eat solid foods. Our bodies have evolved so that solid foods make us feel satisfied, fluid calories, like the ones you would get from a protein shake don’t have strong satiety properties, nor does it suppress hunger. In fact when using fluid calories from any source, studies have shown that people often end up eating more calories overall as they ingest calories from the liquid and then keep eating as they are not satisfied by liquids in the same way, which sets the stage for overeating and weight gain. Physiologically the mechanisms behind hunger and thirst are very different. Thirst is quenched when your brain sends a signal that your blood and cell volume has increased, but hunger is regulated by signals from your stomach and intestines. When you eat solid foods, the nerves in your stomach detect that your stomach wall is stretching and sends a satiety signals to your brain while your intestines release hormones that all contribute to you feeling full. Protein shakes are often used on an empty stomach to replace a meal, but as you can see from the way in which our bodies are designed, it can’t satisfy you the way solid foods can and my experience has been that people using protein shakes as meal replacements during the day tend to overeat at night as your body isn’t satisfied by the liquid calories. People using protein shakes as a way to reduce their overall calories for purposes weight loss are only able to do so for limited periods. Over time the urge to eat solid foods (and the wrong ones at that) become overwhelming and any weight lost while using the shakes as a meal replacement tends to be rapidly regained.


As an up and coming natural bodybuilder, one of the first rules I learned from my coaches is that you never have protein shakes before a contest, and that you should always eliminate them at least three months out if you really want to get your body fat levels down. In so doing, you rely solely on solid foods that take full advantage of the thermic effect. My coaches, maintained that long before there were protein shakes, men and women had no problems building muscle and reducing their body fat and it is hard to argue with the list of impressive natural bodybuilders before the 1970’s. They also believed that consumption of protein supplements promotes water retention and increased body fat that many mistake for an increase in muscle mass. Take a look at the average protein drinking gym-goer and chances are that they don’t sport well defined abdominals. Instead they tend to look a bit on the bulky side- a look that can be easily duplicated by drinking milkshakes instead of protein shakes. They are a lot cheaper and at the end of the day, will do the same thing- which is make you fat.


arsenic is commonly found in protein shakes
You can get a daily dose of arsenic from protein shakes, thanks to unregulated manufacturing processes.


Protein Shakes Manufacturing Processes Are Unregulated & Often Contain Harmful Ingredients


‘Pharmaceutical grade’ is a common element on many protein supplement container, however the truth is that FDA regulations do not require protein drinks to undergo any form of safety testing. That being said, it is no surprise that a recent review by Consumer Reports found that all of the protein shakes tested had at least one sample containing lead, arsenic, cadmium and mercury [3] A sampling of the three recommended daily servings of a popular Myoplex product by EAS found 16.9 micrograms of arsenic (the safety standard set by U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) is 15 micrograms) and 5.1 micrograms of cadmium- which is just above the USP limit of 5 micrograms a day. Muscle Milk samples contained all the heavy metals mentioned: lead, arsenic, cadmium and mercury with the daily recommended serving yielding 5.5 micrograms of cadmium (5 micrograms is the safe limit), 13.5 micrograms of lead (10 micrograms is the USP safe limit), and 12.2 micrograms of arsenic. These numbers should not be taken lightly, as heavy metals such as cadmium accumulates in the body and can bring about extensive kidney damage.[4,5,6] Heavy metals also have a tendency to stay in the body and it can take as long as 20 years to eliminate just half of the cadmium it absorbs today. The Consumer Reports investigation notes that cadmium raises special concern because it accumulates in and can damage the kidneys, the same organs that can be damaged by excessive protein consumption.  And it can take 20 years for the body to eliminate even half the cadmium absorbed today.

are protein shakes good for you- a look at the science
The questionable ingredients in protein shakes may be responsible for adverse health outcomes.


Protein Shakes Can Cause Kidney Damage & Possibly Liver Damage


Kidneys be damaged by high levels of heavy metals found in protein shakes. and they may also exacerbate underlying kidney problems.  Many routinely drink upwards of the recommended servings of protein shakes throughout the course of a day by adding extra scoops or by having over three servings. The idea that more is better is especially prevalent among those seeking to build muscular physiques and there are no protein supplements with labels spelling out what the maximum serving sizes should be, that of course would be bad for business. Anyone with diabetes or kidney problems could find themselves facing serious side effects from overdoing their protein intake and shakes make it all the easier to do so. People are not always aware that they have kidney problems or diabetes, so you should always be aware of your health status before consuming them. As a somewhat unnatural product, it isn’t at all surprising that many doctors suspect long term protein shake consumption as a cause of liver dysfunction. I was diagnosed several years ago with a fatty liver and abnormal enzymes. As a lifetime drug free athlete who never drinks and eats a consistently healthy base of foods, it was a bit of a shock and my physician pointed to my protein supplement intake as a possible cause- as it was something he had seen before in other athletes. I got several other opinions from different gastroenterologists and they all concurred that protein shakes might be the causative factor and so reluctantly I stopped taking them. In time, my liver enzymes stabilized again at normal levels, even though I was still taking in the same amount of protein, only this time it was from real foods.


Protein Shakes & Pregnancy- A Controlled Environment Test

protein shakes are not recommended for pregnant women
Protein supplementation is not recommended for pregnant women as it can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes.



One of the main problems with epidemiological studies is that it is almost impossible to target one particular food as being harmful and or responsible for negative health outcomes. We eat such varied diets of so many foods that the potential negative effects of any one food source is hard to pin down unless a group of individuals were forced to consume a very limited set of foods in a controlled environment. That’s one of the reasons foods that we know as being harmful such as trans fats and high fructose corn syrup remain on the market as it is all but impossible to conclusively say that those ingredients are the cause of our currently high rates of obesity and metabolic- related diseases. Protein shakes are no exception- however there is indeed volumes of research that demonstrate the differences between supplemented protein in the form of shakes versus protein from traditional food sources with regard to overall health outcomes in a controlled environment- and that comes from observations made during pregnancy.


Are protein shakes good or bad

Protein is an important dietary component during pregnancy for gestational weight and the required maternal body weight increases. Supplemental protein in the form of protein shakes were thus considered a potentially convenient method of increasing protein intake for mothers on the go or undernourished females. A comprehensive review of all of the studies conducted to assess the effects of a high protein supplementation intake during pregnancy on gestational weight gain, and pregnancy outcomes show that the protein derived from supplemental sources do not exhibit the same effects as protein from traditional food sources.[6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19, 21] In fact data from animal studies and human trials suggest that high-protein supplementation (i.e. supplementation in which the protein provides at least 25% of its total energy content) can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes[20]. That being said, available evidence from a review of over 13 studies involving almost 5,000 women provides no justification for prescribing high-protein nutritional supplements to pregnant women as not only were such supplements found  to lack any potential beneficial effects, but evidence continues to suggest that they may even be harmful.[5] In two trials of 529 women, high-protein supplementation was associated with a significantly increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth weight even among undernourished mothers.[9,18] In three other trials, involving 966 women, isocaloric protein supplementation was also associated with an increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth weight.[14,21,22] (Note: Isocaloric protein supplementation refers to a supplement in which the protein content is ’balanced’ and provides less than 25% of its total energy content, but replaces an equivalent amount of energy in the regular diet) It’s an important finding from the most respected clinical authorities in the medical sciences and a significant insight into the fact that supplemented protein is not a natural part of our dietary intake and that it should not be. The Cochrane Group review ends with an advisory for pregnant mothers to avoid protein shakes and supplements- advice that perhaps all of us should heed.


protein shakes can be hard to stop using
Don’t fall for the advertising pressure to use protein shakes as all you need is simple real food.


Protein Shakes & The Advertising Hype


It wasn’t easy stopping the shakes. Everyone else used them and everywhere I went in the gym there were ads with all the top athletes with a shake bottle in their hands. (In later years I learned that few of the athletes endorsing the products ever really took them and I myself have been asked on several occasions to endorse products even given my well known stance against their use). It was hard, and the peer pressure was enormous, but slowly I weaned myself off of the shakes. I thought that perhaps I would see some reduction in my muscle mass a result, but nothing could have been further from the truth. Over the past ten years, I have made better and more consistent gains in strength, muscle mass and conditioning as compared to when I was having protein shakes on a daily basis. It did mean that I had to pay more attention to my diet and plan my meals a bit more, but I credit that transition with being able to naturally maintain a body fat percentage of 7% or less all year round. Not only do I no longer have the stomach upsets that I learned to live with when I drank shakes regularly, but I also feel better and my digestion and energy levels are much better than they were before. Who knew just eating real food could be so beneficial? (Read my article here on how much protein do you really need to build muscle.)

the author protein shake free
Author and natural bodybuilding champion Kevin Richardson has been protein shake free since 1999 and has done much better without it!

In retrospect, I should have stopped earlier. I never used protein shakes before a contest or photoshoot, so why was it logical to go back to using them when I felt and looked my best without them? These products are a testimony to the influence of pervasive marketing and it is hard to escape it when as much as 60% of fitness magazines today are filled with supplement advertisements- most of them being for protein shakes. They also appeal to our modern microwave mentality for quick over quality. It is a fundamentally flawed argument to say that having a protein drink is better than eating junk food as the two both pose potential risks to your health and are well outside the circle of real foods that our bodies are designed to consume. Such ideas of health relativity are akin to saying that it is better to jump from the 19th floor of a building rather than the 20th. Both lead to the same result while the true logical response is to ignore both choices. The other evil bestowed upon us by protein shakes and the like is the idea that we need something outside of ourselves to be healthy. That we have to purchase something to achieve our goals and that we are unable on our own to do great things. Changing your body in a positive way requires sacrifice and convenience does not always factor into the equation. A strong and healthy body comes from years of dedication, commitment, sensible eating and time, but most certainly not from a protein shake.

High Intensity Bodyweight Training: Ballistic Pushups & Dips!

This was a tough one!

Starts out with ballistic push ups (like clap pushups but without the clap as my wrist is still not 100%) nonstop for 20 reps, then all out on dips for 10 reps.

To say it was painful would be an understatement, but you just have to push through and keep on going.

Still training, hope you are too and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#hometraining #homeworkout #homeworkout #highintensitytraining #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #fitover40 #naturalbodybuildingvideos #chestday #chesttraining #naturalbodybuildingtips #pushups #dips #bodyweighttraining #highintensitytrainingtips #drugfreebodybuilding #calesthenics

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Kevin's Unconventional Biceps Training- 3-6 Minutes a Week!

In this video I go over my biceps training using the Naturally Intense High Intensity Training protocols that helped me go from having arms measuring 11.5 to 12 inches to 18 inches drug free!

It's an unconventional approach for certain, but it's one that's helped my arms grow and the hundreds of men and women I have trained over the past 30 plus years.

Now, my success isn't due to being genetically gifted, as it took me the better part of 11 years to get my arms up to those measurements.

Which is significant as it works and been been proven time and time again to work for the average man or woman trying to grow their arms without drugs.

It's my hope that these high intensity training protocols can help you as much as they helped me!

Click on my bio link to see the full video on my YouTube channel and thanks as always for taking the time to look at my work!!! Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#highintensitytraining #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #fitover40 #naturalbodybuildingvideos #armworkout #bicepsworkout #naturalbodybuildingtips #biceps #armtraining #highintensitytrainingtips #drugfreebodybuilding #barbellcurls

55 8

At the Lancaster Classic Day 2 Elimination Rounds Against European Champion, and World Record Holder Leo Pettersen @leo_barebow_archer

I don't talk much about it but I'm also a competitive barebow archer (surprise!) and last Saturday I had the honor of making it to Day 2 at the Lancaster Archery Classic in the Barebow Division, as I made the top 64 out of 267 competitors and had a chance to shoot with some of the greatest barebow shooters on the planet!

I didn't make it past Leo, but it was a real rush to be there and a huge thanks to my coach, Joe MyGlyn @prolinearchery for helping me get there.

Thanks as well to my good friend @sean_chan33 for all of his help from the very start, to my line buddy Aaron Shea for taking the shot and showing up to support!

My thanks as well to rob_kaufhold for putting on and promoting one of the best archery tournaments on earth!

Thanks also to to everyone who took the time to send a supporting word and I am looking forward to next year!!! #naturallyintense #barebow

#lancasterclassic #lancasterarcheryclassic2024 #lancasterarchery #archery #fitover40 #barebowrecurve #targetarchery

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Dumbo, Brooklyn circa 2004

This shot was taken as part of the promotion for my Naturally Intense DVD and was about a year after my last bodybuilding competition.

It was a grueling photoshoot.

We started at about 10 am and finished around 4pm and I was completely spent, but the more we shot the sharper I looked, so we kept on going.

It's nice to look back from time to time and as tired as I was, we all had a blast!

My thanks to @stephanie_corne_artwork, @https://pulse.ly/itgnag2dec and @ftaz1 for taking the shots!!!

Thanks for watching and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #throwback #fifthavenuegym #5thavenuegym #drugfreebodybuilding #naturalbodybuildinglifestyle #gymlife #gymmotivation #naturalbodybuildingmotivation #bodybuilding #blackandwhite #instablackandwhite #bnw

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Can You Build An Impressive Physique Training Only At Home?


I stopped training in commercial gyms as of March 2020 and have been training at home ever since.

Initially I was admittedly worried that I might lose some of my gains or not make as much progress, but that certainly wasn't the case.

I've consistently continued to improve with my high intensity workouts and muscles have no idea where they are training.

As long as the criteria of adequate intensity and overload are met, there will be an adaptive response and your muscles will get bigger and stronger.

So don't worry at all about where you train, focus instead of what will be the best way for you to always be training!

Thanks for watching and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

97 3

Kevin's Three Day Training Spilt!

For the past 33 years I have trained three times a week with Naturally Intense High Intensity Training workouts lasting 10, 15 to 20 minutes max.

It's a training split tried and testes not only in it's helping me realize my goal of becoming a successful natural bodybuilder, but it's also helped hundreds of men and women over the past three decades.

I have tested just about every possible training split imaginable and for this particular style of high intensity training, this particular grouping consistently yields fantastic results.

I hope it helps you as much as it's helped me over the years and thanks so much for taking the time to look at my work.

Keep training hard and Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#trainingsplit #3daytrainingsplit #threedaytrainingsplit #naturalbodybuilding #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuildingvideo #naturalbodybuildingmotivation #naturalbodybuildingtips #drugfreebodybuilding #bodybuilding #highintensitytraining #highintensitytrainingtips

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405 Stiff Leg Deadlift for 7 Reps! High Intensity Training.

First leg workout of the year and already pushing it!

I haven't done a stiff leg deadlift over 315lbs for about 3 years at this point, and I did my last set with 315lbs and comfortably got to 10 reps and decided I had far too much gas left in the tank and that I should go up in weight.

So I did.

I figured I might get a solid 6 reps in, but I made it to 7 and I think I could have gone on to get a full 10 reps BUT that's when good judgement prevailed.

As a bodybuilder having not trained this heavy for so many years, the shock of this much weight would be more than enough to stimulate muscle growth, and doing more reps wouldn't yield any greater returns, only increase the likelihood of injury.

It's not about the numbers, it's about training to a point where you achieve your goal, and it's important to have a goal in mind as a bodybuilder based on increasing muscle mass rather than hitting a particular number.

Besides, if in my 20's I never did more than 405lbs on a stiff leg deadlift, it doesn't make any sense going heavier than when I am almost 50!

Could I deadlift more at this point?

Absolutely but just because you can doesn't mean you should!

So keep those weights in a good working range, keep it safe and as always Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#hometraining #homeworkout #homeworkout #roguerack #highintensitytraining #naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #fitover40 #naturalbodybuildingvideos #backworkout #naturalbodybuildingtips #backtraining #highintensitytrainingtips #drugfreebodybuilding #fitoverforty #deadlift

71 20

Turning 50 in a few months...

Not much of a big deal for me as I still feel pretty much the same but I hope that my example helps show what can be done with a lifetime commitment to eating well and training consistently!

Thanks for coming along on the journey and as always, Excelsior!!! #naturallyintense

#naturalbodybuilder #naturalbodybuilding #healthylifestyle #fitover40 #drugfreebodybuilding #naturalbodybuildingmotivation #natty #fitness

242 41

Related Articles:

How Much Protein Do You Really Need to Build Muscle?


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Click To Get A Copy Of Kevin’s Free Ebook On The Role Of Exercise In Reducing Abdominal Fat!


Featured everywhere from the Wall Street Journal to CBS News, Kevin Richardson’s Naturally Intense High Intensity Training have helped hundreds lose weight and transform their bodies with his 10 Minute Workouts. One of the top natural bodybuilders of his time, Kevin is also the international fitness consultant for UNICEF and one of the best personal trainers in New York City. Learn more about his award winning personal training services here!



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2. McMurry MP, Cerqueira MT, Connor SL, and Connor WE. Changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels and body weight in Tarahumara Indians after consumption of an affluent diet [see comments]. N Engl J Med
3. Consumer Reports July 2010
4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Public Health Statement for Cadmium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1989.
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6. Atton C, Watney PJM. Selective supplementation in pregnancy: effect on birth weight. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 1990
Badrawi H, Hassanein MK, Badroui MHH, Wafa YA, Shawky HA, Badrawi N. Pregnancy outcome in obese pregnant mothers. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 1993
7. Adair LS, Pollitt E. Outcome of maternal nutritional supplementation: a comprehensive review of the Bacon Chow Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985
8. Briley C, Flanagan NL, Lewis NM. In-home prenatal nutrition intervention increased dietary iron intakes and reduced low birthweight in low-income African-American women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002
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11. Ben-Shlomo Y, Holly J, McCarthy A, Savage P, Davies D, Davey Smith G. Prenatal and postnatal milk supplementation and adult insulin-like growth factor I: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2005
12. Girija A, Geervani P, Rao GN. Influence of dietary supplementation during pregnancy on lactation performance. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1984
13. Kardjati S, Kusin JA, De With C. Energy supplementation in the last trimester of pregnancy in East Java: I. Effect on birthweight. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1988
14. Mardones-Santander F, Rosso P, Stekel A, Ahumada E, Llaguno S, Pizzaro F, et al. Effect of a milk-based food supplement on maternal nutritional status and fetal growth in underweight Chilean women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988
15. Christiansen N, Mora JO, Navarro L, Herrera MG. Effects of nutritional supplementation during pregnancy upon birth weight: the influence of pre-supplementation on diet. Nutrition Reports International 1980
16. Ross SM, Nel E, Naeye RL. Differing effects of low and high bulk maternal dietary supplements during pregnancy. Early Human Development 1985
Jacobson HN. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation. Pediatrics 1980
17. Sweeney C, Smith H, Foster JC, Specht J, Kochenour NK, Prater BM. Effects of a nutrition intervention program during pregnancy: maternal data phases 1 and 2. Journal of Nurse Midwifery 1985
18. Wolff S, Legarth J, Vangsgaard K, Toubro S, Astrup A. A randomized trial of the effects of dietary counseling on gestational weight gain and glucose metabolism in obese pregnant women. International Journal of Obesity 2008
19. Viegas OAC, Scott PH, Cole TJ, Mansfield HN, Wharton P, Wharton BA. Dietary protein energy supplementation of pregnant Asian mothers at Sorrento, Birmingham. I. Unselective during second and third trimesters. BMJ 1982
20. Rush D. Effects of changes in protein and calorie intake during pregnancy on the growth of the human fetus. In: Chalmers I, Enkin MW, Keirse MJNC editor(s). Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989
21. Badrawi H, Hassanein MK, Badroui MHH, Wafa YA, Shawky HA, Badrawi N. Pregnancy outcome in obese pregnant mothers. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 1993
22. Kramer MS. Energy and protein intake in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000

Kevin Richardson
Kevin Richardsonhttps://www.naturallyintense.net
Featured everywhere from the Wall Street Journal to CBS News, celebrity Personal Trainer NYC and with over 2.6 million readers of his blog, Kevin Richardson is the creator of Naturally Intense High Intensity Training, one of the top lifetime drug free bodybuilders of his time, the first International Fitness & Nutrition Consultant for UNICEF, 2020 and 8 Time Winner of the Best of Manhattan Awards for Personal Training and a world recognized authority on high intensity training. Kevin has helped thousands, from celebrities to CEO's over the past 30 years achieve their fitness goals with his 10 minute high-intensity workouts done just three times a week in conjunction with his holistic nutrition approach. You can learn more about about his diet and training services at www.naturallyintense.net

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